Current standards and guidelines such as EN 1992-4 and ACI 318 have their limitations when it comes to designing fastenings in concrete. Spring models provide a solution to this, as they additionally consider the displacement and deformation of an anchorage in addition to transferrable forces. They also aren’t restricted to rectangular anchor layouts with a maximum 3x3 anchor configuration. fischer’s white paper provides all the answers to key questions surrounding the spring model design approach:
The current methods for the design of anchorages given in the codes are deemed valid only if the baseplate is sufficiently stiff. The quantification of the required stiffness of the baseplate is one of the most discussed topics in the code committees since several years. The use of spring models can offer an innovative solution to this problem. The design of the anchorage as well as the baseplate can be optimized using linear spring models. Nonlinear spring models automatically account for the stiffness of the baseplate as well as the anchor stiffness within the linear and nonlinear range, thereby providing a direct calculation for the resistance of the anchor group. Therefore, with the nonlinear spring modelling approach it is possible to perform realistic calculations for anchorages that lie beyond the scope of the CC Method.
Junior Professor Innovative Strengthening Methods with Fastenings, Institute of Construction Materials, University of Stuttgart
Prof. Akanshu Sharma has long-term experience in structural engineering focusing on strengthening methods with fastenings.
Senior Expert Technology Transfer and International Standardisation at fischer
Boglárka Bokor has been working on developing innovative approaches to anchor design for 5 years and defended her Ph.D. thesis on the topic of non-linear spring model for the evaluation of anchor groups in concrete at the University of Stuttgart in 2021.
Head of Technology Transfer and International Standardisation at fischer
Dr. Thilo Pregartner has been working with the design of fastenings in concrete for many years.
Verification is required to prove that a selected product is suitable for the required load in order to prevent an anchor from failing. This makes simple design software for planners, structural engineers and construction engineers an essential.
Fixperience undergoes continuous development to meet the design standards and requirements of planners and structural engineers. The new EN 1992-4 standard has already been fully integrated into C-Fix Online.
Finite element modules have also been implemented into the latest version and is useful to check the sufficiency of the baseplate’s stiffness with the help of the linear spring model. The base plate stiffness can then be optimised, for example, by applying additional stiffeners. The non-linear spring model will be implemented in the upcoming versions of C-Fix Online. The “spring model” module is available exclusively in the online version.